Preformulation and Formulation Development

Optimizing Conformational Stability and Biological ActivityMaintenance of the native three dimensional conformation is critical for the long term stability and biological activity of biotherapeutics. Biophysical characterization techniques such as circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy provide a mechanism to assess the conformational and thermodynamic stability of proteins under a range of formulation conditions. These tools allow development scientists to differentiate various various buffer, pH, ionic strength, and excipient conditions, and identify the conditions that confer the optimum environment for the therapeutic protein.

Utilizing Advanced Statistical Design for Preformulation Development Preformulation development includes statistical design of experiments, allowing simultaneous evaluation of multiple factors and evaluation of interactions between factors. It is crucial to use advanced biophysical characterization techniques to evaluate the conformational stability of large molecules in addition to traditional methods for evaluation of chemical stability.

A large molecule preformulation development program typically includes the following activities:
Evaluate the effect of pH, buffer type, and ionic strength on solubility.
Evaluate the effect of various excipients on improving solubility if necessary.
Evaluate effects of pH, buffer type, and excipients on conformational stability.
Evaluate the effect of pH, buffers, excipients and ionic strength on physical and chemical stability.
Utilize a statistical design approach to identify the optimal conditions for structural, physical and chemical stability.
Perform forced degradation to elucidate product degradation pathways and to demonstrate the stability-indicating capacity of the analytical methods.
Forced degradation studies typically include restricted oxidation, deamidation, aggregation (via agitation), and / or acid / base hydrolysis.
Evaluation of heat stress, photo stress, and freeze thaw are also performed.

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Formulation Development for Numerous Dosage FormsFormulation development includes dosage forms for parenteral, oral topical and inhalation administration, including liquids, gels, suspensions, emulsions and lyophilized powders. Formulation scientists are highly skilled in the development of the dosage forms most relevant to biotherapeutics, with particular expertise in lyophilization and development of stable liquid formulations for proteins. High concentration antibody formulation development for subcutaneous administration requires particular emphasis on viscosity and tonicity. Lyophilization cycle development is performed in the context of the unique thermodynamic properties of the API to deliver an efficient, scalable, transferable process resulting in optimum product stability and reconfiguration characteristics. Formulation development capabilities also include:

Effect of excipients on solubility, tonicity, and viscosity Evaluation of antioxidant and conservative compatibility Container-closure compatibility Long term and accelerated stability studies.

Advantages of Formulation Development Approach. This outlined approach to preformulation and formulation development result in significant savings to the client by eliminating the variables associated with suboptimal formulations. Preclinical development efforts in PK, PD, ADME and toxicology occur with confidence that additional uncontrollable variables from unstable formulations are not introduced into the study. This benefit extends far into clinical trials as well, where assessment of toxicity, dosage levels and efficiency are substantially influenced by an optimal formulation that preserves the three dimensional conformation of the therapeutic protein. By eliminating uncontrolled stability variables, the focus is placed solely on the therapeutic performance and clinical outcome.

Google Instant Now Available for Mobile Phones

For those that follow internet tech news they are aware that Google instant search has been live for a few weeks now, but the new news is that Google Instant is now live for mobile phones. The number of phones that can benefit from Google Instant search is limited, so far only to iPhone and Android mobile devices.

Google announcement so far confirms that Android 2.2 platforms are so far the only capable mobile phones to use instant search and iPhones on its 4. The mobile version of Google is not far, but knowing Google will not be long until other languages ​​are added.

Once users log into the Google and go to the search page they will have to check the turn on instant search one time if they wish to use it, and if they do not they will have to turn it off afterwards. The user experience is practically the same as it is for computer users. Google instant offers almost instant results of the search query in a predicting pattern. Predicting pattern not being actually predicting, but showing the most search terms in that combination of letters.

Google instant services is designed for Wi-Fi and 3G networks with a hint that it is also developed for the new announced 4G network, but that is still unconfirmed.

Google is the number one internet company in the world, it owns over 40 multi million dollar companies and is investing in genetics, tech, and cyber research and internet technology. The latest projects that are getting the media attention is the long awaited smart vehicle also known as Robo-car and the Instant Search that followed the implementation of Google Caffeine. And like with every other internet app, as soon as a desktop version is out we can expect a mobile app version as well, which was in this case very fast and without error.

Strategize Your Advertising with Vinyl Graphics

Marketing and advertising campaigns have taken a new dimension with the technological changes in graphics printing and decals. Adhesives have undergone a major change in the last few years, getting better and safer to use. Earlier the major problem faced by professionals was the high level of chemicals used for application and removal of decals.
New safer, easy to apply vinyl decals have simplified the whole process, that even a layman can apply it.

Vinyl graphics in the form of stickers, banners and decals are in vogue as advertising and marketing tools. Window vinyl graphics is a preferred medium, especially for store windows, car windows and glass fronts. Mainly perforated vinyl graphics are used on glass, as it is safe and does not heat up easily, even on exposure to sunlight.

Another good area which had benefited by using vinyl graphics is the banner advertising sector. Banner graphics are often printed as photo prints with laminations, which have higher chances of curling after multiple uses. The banner stand graphics are easy to set up and transported, but used to get warped fast. With the change over to vinyl graphics, banner stands have started printing on vinyl the same photo prints with amazing results. You get the same vibrant multicolored prints with equal digital quality prints with matt finish on the vinyl, without the fear of curling and warping of the banner.

With banners and decals, vinyl is being use steadily with a rise in advertising features.
The variety available in decals is actually amazing. You have a choice in colors, shapes and sizes giving you the freedom to avail the decal as per your requirement. Decals are cheaper to use than getting wraps on vehicles, making them more popular. Adding to their popularity is the facility of new eco-friendly adhesives which can be applied faster and removed with greater ease, without using heat and chemical applications.

Vinyl decals are here to stay as the cheap effective methods of popular advertisements and an integral part of marketing strategies. You are your own master whether it is applying the decals, removing them, designing them and strategizing your campaign. Although professional auto installers are always there to help you in case needed but the dependence is over. So, market your product and target a wider section of audience with vinyl graphics . Add it to your store window and increase the number of customers or print your trade show banner with it, unlimited choice with better results.

Local Internet Advertising Can Be Your Best Friend

Advertising online for a business is no longer the wave of the future. The future is now. Online exposures an industry to thousands of people with the click of a button. Most people will see a company's name on the web faster than anywhere in the advertising marketplace. Online has a variety of different advertising methods that one can utilize. There are national sites, as well as local sites. Free listings, paid ads, text, pictures, blogs, and pop ups are just a few methods. One can spend as much money or as little money, as they want to on promotional campaigns.

The type of business needing advertisements can help determine which sites to display. For example, when selling cars, a good placement is a website that sells auto parts or auto insurance. Any site connected to automobiles, including parts, service, or information is a good target site.

Public blog sites are an option that gets many hits. Place blogs about the company on public websites. There are local blog sites as well as national ones. Companies can also create their own blog page to boost content, links and visibility. A smaller business is well-suited to advertising online locally to reach the public sector they wish to reach. There is no need to advertise nationally without the business operates nationwide.

A key to advertising local online is to use search engine optimization (SEO). This is a method of taking the words a person may use in a search, and applying them to the advertisement text. The more search words used in the advertisement, the more people that will hit on the targeted site. If the desire is local advertising, add the preferred location so it will appear on a local search.

Utilize all the free listings, and place as many free ads as possible. The more times a business manages to place a listing, the higher it will rank. This ranking determinates in what order the site will come up compared to others when a search is launched.

Every company also needs a web page. Create one, even if it is only one page. The more colorful and graphic the page is, the more attention it will draw. Anytime a business places an ad, a picture should accompany the text if possible. Use photos that promote the business, but will also grab attention. It will not matter what the text says, unless the public is enticed to read it. Keyword research and careful selection of terms will help target potential clients. Learn to grab public attention, and the rest will follow.